Below are a list of the most essential bash commands when working with the c programming language in linux.
Examples tested on Ubuntu v12.04.
# Install GNU C compiler and other essential C programs onto Linux platform
sudo apt-get install build-essential
# Creates c file called main.c in current directory and opens gedit to begin editing it
# (and frees terminal)
gedit main.c &
# Compiles C program main.c with standard flags and creates executable called main
gcc -Wall -W -Werror main.c -o main
# Run a compiled executable called main in the current directory
# Note that './' is mandatory, otherwise bash will think you have typed a command
# Change file permissions on executable called main so that it will run (if experiencing 'Permission denied' errors)
chmod +x main
# Compiles C program main.c and creates executable called main with debugging symbols
gcc -Wall -W -Werror main.c -o main -g
# Starts debugging session on compile program called main.
# Make sure -g flag was used when compiling
# GDB commands (omit the (gdb) prefix, this will be present in the terminal already)
(gdb) break 16 # Set breakpoint at line 16 (when running gdb)
(gdb) run # Run program (when in gdb)
(gdb) n # Move to next line
(gdb) c # Continue to next breakpoint
(gdb) s # Step to next line (unlike n, will jump into functions)
(gdb) print x # Print the variable x